Events that slow or interrupt the manufacturing process or degrade the product impair the competitiveness of a manufacturing enterprise. The key technology in stamping is the transfer press, which incorporates a mechanism for moving parts between five or six dies. Manufacturing of and with Advanced Engineered Materials, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, The Competitive Edge: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing, Appendix B: Panels of the Committee on Analysis of Research Directions and Needs in U.S. Manufacturing. Some specific needs in these areas are addressed below. It is most often expressed as a percentage, using the following calculation: Availability = 100 x (Available Time (hours) / Total Time (hours)) For equipment and/or systems that are expected to be able to be operated 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, Total Time is usually defined as being 24 hours/day, 7 days/week (in other words 8,760 hours per year). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Over the next several product generations, the cost of such facilities is expected to reach between $500 million and $750 million (Figure 3-2 ). Frequently, the industry implements maintenance schemes, which are based on equipment’s manufacturer’s recommendations and may not apply changes throughout … It measures the average time required to restore an asset to its full operational condition after a failure. These definitions are important when comparing data for different firms in an industry. An understanding of enterprise optimization is needed to guide the application of technical work in the plant. The cumulative effect of these practices is reflected in the product—mass-produced automobile body parts that are. While this does not mean that U.S. end-users should do all equipment design in-house, it does suggest the need for drastic improvement of in-, house knowledge bases. Historically, the evolution of ERM can be traced from breakdown maintenance and repair to preventive maintenance to predictive maintenance. A standard methodology for measuring the performance of ERM is needed, as is a way to quantify the benefits of ERM for top management. Without a measurement system that can quantify relationships between engineering work and profit/asset benefits, assess the costs of equipment waiting (e.g., load, unload, operator, material) and downtime, and allocate maintenance costs to reflect reality, results will be anecdotal and perception of the basis for changing the incentive structure will remain shaky. comparable, if not superior, to those produced by manufacturers of low volume, luxury cars. Still, the system has served the utility well. and vertically to supervisory controllers above or slaves below. Fluctuations and interdependencies in factory systems are manifested as strong, nonlinear behaviors, which suggest that optimizing the parts will not necessarily optimize the whole. Source: Intel Corporation, 1989. By getting involved early in the project you’ll have the opportunity to work with design engineering, providing requirements and special conditions that will affect the operation and maintenance of new equipment. Imagine being a maintenance engineer and receiving 50 work orders during an overhaul with a limited budget, time, labor, spare parts, tools, machines, etc. This chapter addresses all causes of diminished or … Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. The equipment belongs to a system that performs a crucial function. 1989. Preventive maintenance is the systematic servicing of equipment to reduce the possibility of failure. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Reliability—which may be the driver for a few key components or safety features, but is generally a secondary consideration for entire systems— is usually built in after the fact on the basis of experience and limited information. Maintenance. Moreover, Japanese plants are characterized by a highly disciplined approach to basic housekeeping—floors and manufacturing equipment are kept spotlessly clean. Assemble a multidisciplinary team to participate in the equipment reliability process. The cost of a typical state-of-the-art manufacturing facility for semiconductor memory chips has risen eightfold since 1980, from $25 million to $200 million. The panel has ranked research needs in ERM within two broad categories. The potential. Ideally, "nothing breaks down." The charter of a U.S. plant maintenance institute might include: competitive assessment of ERM (United States versus other countries), research to improve ERM competitiveness and spread best practice, assistance to companies attempting to improve ERM, ERM training assistance, a forum for technology transfer, and recognition of companies that meet predefined ERM thresholds. Intel and several of its key equipment suppliers have begun to turn the domestic situation around. A new attitude that equipment should improve through use. The maintenance department at Leprino Foods spent most of its time repairing broken equipment. Copyright © 1985 Published by Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(85)90124-9. To be effective in preventing unexpected failures, the preventive maintenance program needs to, from a technical perspective, successfully deal with the underlying causes of failure (which, for the purposes of this article, we will call failure modes). The survey builds upon existing information obtained from equipment drawings, maintenance history records, operational and reliability issues, catalyst performance data, and hydrogen balances. Lacking standard measures of ERM and using reward systems that typically do not encourage operators or supervisors to record or try to maximize equipment performance, industry can give suppliers very little information about its equipment beyond installation. The objectives of each survey are tailored to the requirements of management. Development of systematic, disciplined methodologies that will enable manufacturers to communicate equipment requirements in clear operational terms. With cost constraints and challenges in justifying preventive maintenance activities, the pressure of managing risk and responding to any unplanned equipment outages is real. This chapter addresses all causes of diminished or degraded output. Over time, a host of little investments, each of which delivers savings in labor, material, or overhead cost, can add up to a less-thanoptimal pattern of material flow and to obsolete process technology. The review paper addresses two main topics; (i) identifying procedures presently in use or being developed for assessing or predicting the reliability of equipment, and (ii) identifying OR practices that can improve equipment reliability through objectively determined maintenance practices. While they are generally effective, these practices have been considerably enhanced by state-of-the-art maintenance planning, management, and implementation technologies that incorporate information on equipment design, application, and operation. Technology alone will not yield significant improvements in ERM —it is only an enabler. Industrywide collections of such information will facilitate sharing of technical data—both ERM statistics and qualitative information about the relative effectiveness of different techniques—and help pinpoint areas where improvement is essential to global competitiveness. Some two-year colleges are already cooperating with manufacturers to teach technical skills to shop floor personnel. A focus on using and managing technology. To this end, the training of finance and accounting people to guide and support the concurrent engineering process is critical. Wholly owned and joint-venture manufacturing facilities established in North America by Japanese firms during the 1980s provide a basis for comparing U.S. and Japanese ERM practices in a variety of areas. It cannot. Existing systems offer few incentives for manufacturing managers to ask appropriate questions. Everyone who has worked in a complex organizational structure like that required in manufacturing knows that there is a need to constantly fight against the tendency towards thinking in silos. To evaluate the cost of machine downtime, one must first know a machine 's value per unit of time, which can be obtained through a variety of methods related to capacity utilization (see definition of theoretical capacity on p. 55). The factory is becoming a web of interdependent subsystems, interconnected by computer controllers that communicate horizontally across peer processes. Just-in-time (JIT) is a method of manufacturing by which parts and assemblies are made or delivered as needed, thereby greatly reducing inventory. Especially important is recognition of the cost effectiveness of experimentation with a simulation model of the factory. Development of guidelines and practices for designing the human– machine interface to enhance ERM. The unavailability of internship programs is a serious deficit in U.S. manufacturing. Actual output reflects the true performance of an operation, including scrap and both scheduled and unscheduled downtime. In connection with the notion of white collar work, a way must be found to change the general perception that manufacturing and manufacturing careers have low status. The suppliers, largely isolated, are in most cases not likely to commit resources to providing a capability that many U.S. manufacturers, because they have not yet understood its value, have not demanded. ERM issues will not be addressed unless management chooses to address them. The very terminology of ERM can impede its adoption and practice. In many companies, the capital approval process specifies different levels of authorization depending on the size of the request. Academic emphasis on graduating career or professional engineers. Many of the managers who cannot improve their plants arrived in manufacturing with finance/MBA training and had never set foot in a factory. For equipment that is expected to be op… The problem needs to be viewed in its totality, with a balanced emphasis on human and technological issues and barriers. The hard data needed to make a convincing argument to management are hard to find. Management accounting for advanced technological environments. The company developed a two-part strategy that focused on reducing the operations and support costs of installed equipment while simultaneously influencing the design of a new generation of equipment using life cycle cost data from the factory floor. Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) is a concept of maintenance planning to ensure that systems continue to do what their user require in their present operating context. Restoration of apprenticeship programs and manufacturing laboratories. Intelligent manufacturing control for improved reliability and greater precision. The earlier you, the RE, get involved the more you can impact the design and total cost of ownership. We provide side-by-side reliability and maintenance consulting and training designed to keep your equipment running. Science 245 (August 25): 819-823. The U.S. facilities of Japanese automakers, using U.S. workers to operate three to five presses, often achieve at least twice the productivity of comparable U.S. facilities on a per-line or perpress basis. Technology of MachineTools, Machine Tool Systems Management and Utilization. U.S. manufacturing also needs an equivalent to the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance—an active group unencumbered by antitrust legislation and supportive of joint R&D, production ventures and standard-setting efforts—to spearhead advances in ERM practice. As a result, it is difficult to make comparisons, share results and good practices among cooperating operations, and measure ERM performance trends in any one factory in a universally credible way. Japanese companies that have excelled in this area characteristically have the ability to develop and produce their own equipment. Advanced engineered materials that offer the prospect of better life-cycle performance and other gains. Sometimes referred to as maintainability, MTTR is the measure of the department’s ability to perform maintenance to retain or restore assets to a specified condition. Technology management is becoming an accepted discipline in a growing number of U.S. academic institutions. The productivity of these investments is a fundamental element of competition among companies and nations. No available method of measuring system reliability (e.g., equipment effectiveness = availability × speed ratio × yield) has yet been widely accepted by U.S. manufacturers, and manually collected production downtime data are questionable, inasmuch as waiting time for repairs is seldom reported. While condition-based maintenance introduced a new dimension to asset management, it was still only based on whatever a machine’s current condition was. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. General attention to the inadequacy of the basic level of talent. In contrast to design engineers who, because they are charged in most cases directly to a product, are viewed as contributors, manufacturing engineers and skilled workers are considered manufacturing overhead and, hence, as opportunities for cost reduction. ... Equipment Reliability, Manufacturing Process Reliability, Organization & Leadership, and Work Management. Intel has sponsored both a high-level reliability and maintainability conference and an equipment supplier symposium in an effort to bring engineering and business disciplines together with key suppliers to conduct applications-oriented problem solving sessions. ERM affects drastically the three key elements of competitiveness —quality, cost, and product lead time. (See Chapter 6, Manufacturing Skills Improvement for more on this topic.). The first key area where Maintenance can impact on equipment reliability is by having an appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance program in place. These figures are often given on a yield basis (e.g., output per unit of time or material input). ing system design, simulation fosters a total systems approach to design. Effective management of ERM requires realistic awareness of the benefits of and necessary decisions related to ERM, the technical knowledge that will permit managers to make appropriate. The panel considers ERM to be a significant factor in the competitiveness of manufacturing firms, an assessment supported by the case studies in the section on present practice (pp. Research needs in this area are amplified in Chapter 2, Intelligent Manufacturing Control. Manufacturing management has labored against prevailing views of manufacturing as an appendage to business, a necessary evil, bureaucratic and hence slow to respond, driven by internal pressures and short-term thinking, and not part of the strategic business plan. The Japanese stamping lines, for example, are specified to run at a lower, more reliable rate than equivalent U.S. lines. Across each industry is a reli-. The strategy, which focuses on achieving economical life cycle cost for equipment and other physical assets, began in Japan in the early 1970s. The on-line system included hardware, software, and diagnostic engineering services. The equipment selected should be critical in terms of its effect on operations, its previous costs of repair, and previous costs of preventive maintenance. effectively promote ERM, a clear and strong initiative is needed to identify what needs to be changed, what the objective should be, and how to make the change, in order to have an immediate and significant impact with lasting effects. By allowing the ERM process to be modeled dur-. Berkeley,CA: University of California at Berkeley, October 1980. ing operations and competitiveness can be misled by engineering and production managers who specify low rated capacities and scheduled yields. In recent years, reliability-centered maintenancehas gained popularity. Lacking strength in manufacturing systems engineering, many plants rely on system integrators distinct from the equipment builders to configure their manufacturing systems. For example, the function of a conveyor belt system is to transport goods. Quantifiable reasons must be found for employing technologists in the manufacturing sector of an enterprise. The refiability of equipment is to a large extent built into it by the design engmeeis The compo- nents that are selected and their configurations within the equipment dictate what might be thought of as an equipment's inherem reliability. Such a model should address matching of capabilities, design issues and rules, maintenance, installed base, culture, and organization. The technicians were so busy that they didn’t have time to think about how to proactively solve their issues. Making progress with people-related issues will be much harder than solving technological problems. to equipment failure. Managers and engineers should be aware of the benefits of using simulation methodology during process design. Schools have followed business's lead in the past; when business deemphasized manufacturing in the 1960s, schools closed their manufacturing laboratories. The ERM programs of several U.S. and Japanese manufacturers are outlined in the following paragraphs. FIGURE 3-2 Expected trend in cost of state-of-the-art semiconductor manufacturing facilities. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. The review paper addresses two main topics; (i) identifying procedures presently in use or being developed for assessing or predicting the reliability of equipment, and (ii) identifying OR practices that can improve equipment reliability through objectively determined maintenance practices. In addition, practices that will promote effective implementation and continuous improvement of ERM must be developed. A few basic definitions are used in this chapter. Standards are published for maintenance and operation and for comparing performance of aircraft engines. The OpenBook 's features these bridges outside the engineering school will help recast the industrial engineer of as. 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