Due to the dryness of their habitat throughout most of the year, Cushites are mainly nomadic pastoralists  who keep large herds of cattle, camels, goats and sheep. Examples of Cushites include: - The Rift Cushite peoples – that is the Dorobo and Okiek. Long ago people speaking a south Cushitic language departed from the Ethiopian Highlands and occupied large parts of Kenya, including the highlands. They reside along a very large area of land that runs from the east of Lake Turkana, stretches to the north of Kenya, and through to the Indian Ocean. Also called Dahaloan-speakers, the continued existence of the Southern Cushites as separate and independent Kenya peoples is highly unlikely, as the eastern border of Kenya with Somalia has become little more than a reflection of Somalia's internal conflicts, with heavily-armed raiders, bandits and massacres prevalent throughout the 1990s. The vast majority of Kenyan Cushites are from the Eastern branch, with only a few pockets of numerically tiny Southern Cushites surviving, mainly near the coast. • The Dahallo or Sanye of lower Tana are the only southern Cushites in Kenya. Luhya 7. Samburu 5. The majority of the Somali people live in Somalia. Identity: Various old Cushite groups in the Rift Valley of Kenya and Tanzania are called Dorobo. 45,098 Somali, 27,244 Hawiyah, 100,400 Degodia, 139,597 Ogaden. The Rift cushites were hunters and gatherers while North-East cushites were herders and pastoralists, dealing with agricultural livestock. Cushites include Somali, Rendille, Borana and Oromo tribes. Boran 4. Kenya is a land of great diversity in its people and cultures. d) They were fleeing the outbreak of disease that affected both people and (5m 53s) In the 1989 census the community numbered 420,000 in Kenya. These scholars consider Omotic to be an independent branch of Afroasiatic. 6.The original home land of the cushites was the horn of Africa. They include: 1. They speak Afro-Asiatic languages, and originally came from Ethiopia and Somalia in north-east Africa. Mijikenda Niloticethnic groups include the: 1. The Cushitic people’s form a small ethnic minority of about 2%, mostly represented by Oromo and Somali speakers. The Burji are farmers in Moyale and Marsabit districts. the Cushites moved their capital upstream to a city called Meroe. • In Tanzania they include the Boni, Iraqi and Burungi Eastern Cushites. However, the arrival of both the Bantu and especially the Nilotic-speaking peoples scattered the Cushitic populations. Tribes in Kenya. Speakers of Cushitic languages and the descendants of speakers of Cushitic languages are referred to as Cushitic peoples. Kamba is the 5th largest tribe in the Kenya accounting for over 10 percent of Kenya’s … Cushitic languages are spoken primarily in the Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia), as well as the Nile Valley (Sudan and Egypt), and parts of the African Great Lakes region (Tanzania and Kenya). However, this view has largely been abandoned, primarily due to the work of Harold C. Fleming (1974) and M. Lionel Bender (1975). The Borana are nomadic and occupy the north-east part of Kenya. However, there's a lot of academic dispute about this, with some 'experts' claiming a Cushitic presence in northeastern Kenya as long ago as 7000 BC (ie. Question: "Who were the Cushites?" Cushitic people maintain very close ties with their kinsmen – the Cushites of the neighbouring countries of Somalia and Ethiopia. g) New technology infused into various communities. and were the earliest group to settle in Kenya. • They originated from the area north of Kenya, either Somalia or Ethiopia. The Southern Cushites . For example, there was constant warfare between the Somali and the Oromo. The first known inhabitants of present-day Kenya were Cushitic-speaking tribes that migrated to the northwest region from Ethiopa around 2000 B.C.E. These are the southern Nilotic speakers. Some groups headed south into Tanzania, whilst others headed west into the Rift Valley, where they were eventually assimilated by the ancestors of the Maasai and other Nilotic tribes. Unfortunately, there's little or no material proof of this, nor much likelihood of finding any: the material culture of nomadic peoples is generally perishable, as items such as pots, ropes, sandals and so on are made of natural materials such as fibres, wood, gourds and animal products. Rendille 13. The Cushitic peoples (or Cushites) are a grouping of people who are primarily indigenous to Northeast Africa (Nile Valley and Horn of Africa) and speak or have historically spoken Cushitic languages of the Afroasiatic language family. In Kenya, Cushitic language speakers are divided into the Eastern and Southern Group. Answer: Cushites were people from the land of Cush/Kush (or “Cushan” in Habakkuk 3:7). They live almost exclusively by herding camels, although cattle are sometimes also kept where climatic conditions allow. • They include; Borana, Somali, Oromo, Gabra, Rendile and Burji. Cushites in Kenya The Cushitic speakers were the first outside people to move to Kenya in the modern era (between 3000-5000) years ago into the area around Lakes Turkana. The Cushites migrated from Northern Africa to East Africa around 2000 B.C. Cushites learnt mixed farming. 5.The main activity of the cushites was pastoralism. The phylum was first designated as Cushitic in 1858. 8.The western Bantus in Kenya include: Abaluhya,Abagusii and Abakuria. - The North-East Cushites-that is the Somali, Boran and Galla among others. Cushites form a significant minority of Kenya’s population. Orma 7. The next group was the Nilotics, who emerged from Nile Valley. The Southern Cushites were the second-earliest inhabitants of Kenya after the indigenous hunter-gatherer groups, and the first of the Cushitic-speaking peoples to migrate from their homeland in the Horn of Africa about 2,000 years ago. The Somali Around 2500 and 3000 years ago, Cushites were already occupying the grasslands of the Kenya highlands cultivating food crops like sorghum, millet and rearing long horned humpless cattle. These were nonetheless exposed to a prolonged and profound interaction with their new Nilotic neighbours, including cultural exchange and intermarriage, to the extent that there is nowadays very little to distinguish the supposedly Cushitic Rendille with their Nilotic Samburu neighbours. Despite covering about 25% of Kenya land surface, Cushites presently account for only 3-4% of the total population. The second major ethno-linguistic group to arrive in Kenya (the first were the Cushites) were the cattle-herding Nilotes, the first of whom came some time around 500 BC.However, Nilotic migrations only became substantial some five hundred years ago, with the arrival of the highly organised and militaristic Luo from the west and the Maasai/Samburu from the north. They reside along a very large area of land that runs from the east of Lake Turkana, stretches to the north of Kenya, and through to the Indian Ocean. Eastern Cushites began to arrive about one thousand years later, and occupied much of the country's current area. Kalenjin Cushiticspeaking people comprise a small minority of Kenya's population. The Namoratunga cemetery and rock art sites, dated to about 300 B.C., are clearly related to the prehistory of … The Maasai called these hunter-gatherers by the name Torobo (Il Torobo), pronounced very like the word Dorobo. Some examples of these peoples include the Cushiticspeaking ethnic gro… Cushitic was traditionally seen as also including the Omotic languages, then called West Cushitic. Cushites are concentrated in the northernmost North Eastern Province (formerly known as Northern Frontier District -NFD), which borders Somalia. Turkana 4. Within Kenya's population of Eastern Cushites, two main distinctions are made: to the east, bordering Somalia, are the Somali-speaking people (also called Somaloid, or Garre), whilst to the north, bordering Ethiopia and indeed occupying a good part of southern Ethiopia, are the Oromo-speakers (formerly and pejoratively called Galla), who migrated into Kenya from the lowland areas south of the Ethiopian highlands. The Greeks indiscriminately called every black people group south of Egypt “Ethiopian” (the burnt faces). Cushites include the Somali, Rendile, Borana … The Kenyan Government, incidentally, is either unable or unwilling to pay anything more than lip-service to the problem. In any case, many more migrations occurred subsequent to the first arrivals, the latest in the mid-1900s (the Burji from Ethiopia), which makes tracing the exact ancestry of any of these peoples a confusing and probably pointless exercise. The Cushitic languages (spoken by Cushitic peoples) are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family spoken in the Horn of Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Sudan and Egypt. Kenya-Agikuyu,pokomo. Due to the huge Arabic culture influence, Islamic traditions rules apply in their food, clothing, and lifestyle. E.g. c) They were in search of better grazing lands. The figure given in the 2009 population census for the number of Somalis in Kenya is believed to be inaccurate and has been nullified pending an official recount. Results of Cushitic Migration into Kenya. Cushites, or Cushitic people, live in the arid and semi-arid eastern and North-Eastern parts of Kenya. 7.List any two Bantus found in Kenya ,uganda and Tanzania. Major Cushitic languages include Oromo, Somali, Beja, Agaw, Afar, Saho The Cushitic peoples are divided into two groups: the Southern Cushites and the Eastern Cushites. The main Bantu groups of Kenya are the: 1. Until the arrival of the Nilotes some five hundred years ago, the ancestors of both the Eastern and Southern Cushites occupied a much larger part of East Africa than they do today, extending into the inter-lakes region as well as central and southern Kenya. In 538 B.C. There was massive warfare during the migrations leading to killing of many people in the process. Burji Dassenich 5. These Cushites are sometimes associated with the land of Midian, which was also in that region. The Eastern Cushites include the Oromo and the Somali, of which the Somali are the most recent arrivals to Kenya, having first come from Somalia only a few centuries ago. Designed by Ibid Labs | Powered by Jieleze, The animal kingdom, the tree of life & where we come from, A history of the National Museums of Kenya. Maasai 3. They are named after the Biblical character Cush, who was identified as an ancestor of the speakers of these specific languages as early as AD 947 (in Masudi’s Arabic history Meadows of Gold). The term means poor people (who do not have cattle)! Yaaka 11. These are: Northern Cushites (mainly in Sudan and Eritrea, which may or may not have elements of North African Berber), Central Cushites (also called the Agau group; mainly in Ethiopia, including the Jewish Falashim, and bearing strong Ethiopic and Amharic influence), the Western Cushites (or Omotic; spoken along the western border of Ethiopia near Kenya), the Southern Cushites (mainly in Tanzania, including the Iraqw, Asa and Ngomwia) and the Eastern Cushites. In broad terms the peoples now designated Cushite are the cultural descendants of those peoples. 9.The nilotes are divided into Kikuyu 2. Cushites, or Cushitic people, live in the arid and semi-arid eastern and northeastern parts of Kenya. 1Room Kenya KCSE History and Government Form 1 Lesson 25: The Eastern Cushites: The Borana. Drought, famine and desertification are recurrent features of their lives, and excludes any possibility of agriculture. The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They reside along a very large area of land that runs from the east of Lake Turkana, stretches to the north of Kenya, and through to the Indian Ocean. Of Kenya's three major migrant ethno-linguistic groups, the first to arrive were the Cushites, the earliest of which are believed to have entered north and northeastern Kenya from southern Ethiopia sometime between the second and first millennium BC. There are three main language groups in Kenya from which the tribes can be divided, These are the Bantus, Nilotes and Cushites, it is from these three ethnic groups that we have the 42 tribes which make up the Kenyan population. Some cushites who had been converted to Islam spread the religion in the areas where they settled. Cushites include Somali, Rendille, Borana and Oromo tribes. Note:- Cushites are the earliest groups to have settled in Kenya. They are spoken primarily in the Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia), as well as the Nile Valley (Sudan and Egypt), and parts of the African Great Lakes region (Tanzania and Kenya). Somali 2. This latter group includes the Borana (by far the largest group numerically), the Gabbra, and the ancestors of the Rendille. Cushites, or Cushitic people, live in the arid and semi-arid eastern and North-Eastern parts of Kenya. Other languages with more than one million speakers are Hadia (1.6 million), Kambata (1.4 million), and Afar (1.5 million). The Swahili tribe is rich in historical and cultural heritage. 9000 years ago). Gabbra 6. Nowadays, Cushitic-speaking peoples are dispersed over a large portion of the arid north and northeast of Kenya, and also comprise the majority in Ethiopia and Eritrea. They include the Somali, Rendille, Borana, Burji, Gabra, Orma, Das-senach, and the El Molo. Kisii 4. That between Kenya and Somalia is fraternal, given a substantial size of Kenyan population is somali. Uganda-Baganda,Batoro. Some sources therefore refer to the Cush of this period as the Meroitic Empire or simply Meroe. The most populous Cushitic language is Oromo with about 35 million speakers, followed by Somali with about 18 million speakers, and Sidamo in Ethiopia with about 2 million speakers. Meru 3. The Orma, who occupy a small enclave around Garsen and the Tana River near the Kenyan coast, are also Oromo-speaking. Recent archaeological research conducted west of Lake Turkana, Kenya has shed new light on the prehistory of eastern Cushitic and Nilotic speakers in East Africa. Kamba 6. The Southern Cushites were the second earliest inhabitants of Kenya after the indigenous Bushman hunter-gatherer groups, and the first of the Cushitic-speaking people to migrate from their homeland in the Horn of Africa about 2000 years ago. the Bantu and the nilotes learned the art of cattle milking and bleeding, irrigation and manuring from the southern Cushites. The Southern Cushitic language was the first of all the present day Kenyan languages to be spoken in this country. In any case, the harsh climate - which alternates between extremes of drought (with plenty of abrasive sand and dust) and floods - quickly destroys any material remains. Ham was one of the three sons of Noah to survive the global flood.Cush was the father of Nimrod the hunter (Genesis 10:8–9). The Swahili tribe traditional garment is a long white robe popularly known a… They came to be after intermarriages between the Cushites, Bantus, Arabs, Hindi, Portuguese, and Indonesian who gave rise to a new culture, people, and language. Cushites in Kenya - InformationCradle. Daholo 12. While some scholars including Zaborski (1986) and Lamberti (1991) have kept the issue alive and suggested that Omotic can still be classified as part of Cushitic, Rolf Theil (2006), in keeping with the noted Chadicist Paul Newman, excludes Omotic from Afroasiatic altogether. Swahili 8. Kamba tribe. learned of circumcision and age set system from the southern Cushites. Luo 2. b) There was population pressure in their area of origin. Jun 21, 2016 - Explore Ismail Mohamed's board "Cushites" on Pinterest. The term Cushite derives from the ancient peoples of northeastern Africa, whose heritage can be traced most clearly in the languages descended from those of the ancient peoples. Christianity is another threat to these peoples' cultural integrity, as is the gradual process of modernization which increasingly makes their traditional way of life - which includes hunting - less viable. Relationship between Kenya and Ethiopia is superb. The Swahili tribe live in the coastal towns in Kenya including Mombasa, Malindi and Indian Ocean islands of Lamu. Of Kenya's three major migrant ethno-linguistic groups, the first to arrive were the Cushites, the earliest of which are believed to have entered north and northeastern Kenya from southern Ethiopia sometime between the second and first millennium BC. Tanzania-Nyamwezi,hehe. Boni 9. The cushites attacked the Eastern Bantu communities who had settled at shungwaya, and forced them to move to their present homeland in Kenya. They were progressively displaced in a southerly direction and/or absorbed by incoming Nilotic and Bantu groups until they wound up in Tanzania. h) Specialization emerged mainly due to inter-community trade in the region. Embu 5. More recently, perhaps some three hundred years ago, the 'Oromo Expansion', which originated in southern Ethiopia, reclaimed some of the land that had been lost, mainly at the expense of the Bantu who were forced south into the much more fertile highland areas of Kenya, where they remain today. Sakuye 8. South Cushitic is a subbranch of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family, historically spoken by peoples living south of the Horn of Africa (where most Cushitic speakers are situated), these Cushites seemingly made it as far as Southern Africa as early as 2,000 years ago or more [1], having reached areas like Kenya and Tazania much earlier. See more ideas about african, beja, africa. Bantu is the largest division making up about 70% of Kenya’s population The Somali represent the largest single group of eastern Cushites in Kenya. Wata 10. Their settlement led to increased rivalry and conflicts for ownership of land. Nilotes in Kenya: After the arrival and several years of settlement by the Cushitic speakers, another group, probably in search of pastures, arrived through the Uganda-Sudan- Ethiopian border region around 2000 years ago. - In Kenya they are spread over a small part as compared to the two countries. Reasons for migration of cushites in Kenya: a) Escaping from clan or family feuds. El Molo 3. They … Nilotes in Kenya – Origin As a consequence of these movements, there are no longer any Southern Cushites left in Kenya. Undaunted, linguists have made several distinctions among Cushitic-speaking peoples based on perceived language roots, although as usual nothing has yet been proved beyond doubt. 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